**Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of bubble collapse in water:
Effects of system size, water model, and nitrogen**

JL Chen and JL Prelesnik and BY Liang and YZS Sun and M Bhatt and C Knight and K Mahesh and JI Siepmann, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 159, 224505 (2023).

DOI: 10.1063/5.0181781

Molecular dynamics simulations in the microcanonical ensemble are performed to study the collapse of a bubble in liquid water using the single-site mW and the four-site TIP4P/2005 water models. To study system size effects, simulations for pure water systems are performed using periodically replicated simulation boxes with linear dimensions, L, ranging from 32 to 512 nm with the largest systems containing 8.7 x 10(6) and 4.5 x 10(9) molecules for the TIP4P/2005 and mW water models, respectively. The computationally more efficient mW water model allows us to reach converging behavior when the bubble dynamics results are plotted in reduced units, and the limiting behavior can be obtained through linear extrapolation in L-1. Qualitative differences are observed between simulations with the mW and TIP4P/2005 water models, but they can be explained by the models' differences in predicted viscosity and surface tension. Although bubble collapse occurs on time scales of only hundreds of picoseconds, the system sizes used here are sufficiently large to obtain bubble dynamics consistent with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation when using the models' thermophysical properties as input. For the conditions explored here, extreme heating of the interfacial water molecules near the time of collapse is observed for the larger mW water systems (but the model underpredicts the viscosity), whereas heating is less pronounced for the TIP4P/2005 water systems because its larger viscosity contribution slows the collapse dynamics. The presence of nitrogen within the bubble only starts to affect bubble dynamics near the very end of the initial collapse, leading to an incomplete collapse and strong rebound for the mW water model. Although nitrogen is non-condensable at 300 K, it becomes highly compressed and reaches a liquid-like density near the collapse point. We find that the dissolution of nitrogen is much slower than the movement of the collapsing water front, and the re-expansion of the dense nitrogen droplet gives rise to bubble rebound. The incompatibility of the collapse and dissolution time scales should be considered for continuum-scale modeling of bubble dynamics. We also confirm that the diffusion coefficient for dissolved nitrogen is insensitive to pressure as the liquid transitions from a compressed to a stretched state.

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