Engineering Vacancies for the Creation of Antisite Defects in Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Monolayer MoS2 and WS2 via Proton Irradiation

B Ozden and TY Zhang and MZ Liu and A Fest and DA Pearson and E Khan and S Uprety and JE Razon and J Cherry and K Fujisawa and H Liu and N Perea- López and K Wang and T Isaacs-Smith and M Park and M Terrones, ACS NANO, 17, 25101-25117 (2023).

DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.3c07752

It is critical to understand the laws of quantum mechanics in transformative technologies for computation and quantum information science applications to enable the ongoing second quantum revolution calls. Recently, spin qubits based on point defects have gained great attention, since these qubits can be initiated, selectively controlled, and read out with high precision at ambient temperature. The major challenge in these systems is controllably generating multiqubit systems while properly coupling the defects. To address this issue, we began by tackling the engineering challenges these systems present and understanding the fundamentals of defects. In this regard, we controllably generate defects in MoS2 and WS2 monolayers and tune their physicochemical properties via proton irradiation. We quantitatively discovered that the proton energy could modulate the defects' density and nature; higher defect densities were seen with lower proton irradiation energies. Three distinct defect types were observed: vacancies, antisites, and adatoms. In particular, the creation and manipulation of antisite defects provides an alternative way to create and pattern spin qubits based on point defects. Our results demonstrate that altering the particle irradiation energy can regulate the formation of defects, which can be utilized to modify the properties of 2D materials and create reliable electronic devices.

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