Electrochemical Degradation of Pt3Co Nanoparticles Investigated by Off-Lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations with Machine-Learned Potentials

J Jung and S Ju and PH Kim and D Hong and W Jeong and J Lee and S Han and S Kang, ACS CATALYSIS, 13, 16078-16087 (2023).

DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.3c04964

In fuel cell applications, the durability of catalysts is critical for large-scale industrial implementation. However, limited synthesis controllability and spectroscopic resolution impede a comprehensive understanding of degradation mechanisms at the atomic level. In this study, we develop a machine-learned potential (MLP) to simulate the degradation processes for Pt3Co nanoparticles. The precision of MLP is determined to be comparable to that of density functional theory calculations. Using off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations with MLP, we successfully replicate established experimental trends and offer a logical resolution to ongoing debates regarding atomic orderings. Based on the simulation results, we suggest design principles for Pt3Co nanoparticles that combine high activity and durability. Finally, we validate the wide applicability of our method by successfully applying it to Pt3Ni and Pt3Co0.5Ni0.5 nanoparticles. Our research serves as a guideline for developing MLPs for alloy electrochemical catalysts and lays the foundation for designing more durable and active fuel-cell catalysts.

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