Modelling electrified microporous carbon/electrolyte electrochemical interface and unraveling charge storage mechanism by machine learning accelerated molecular dynamics

YF Zhang and H Huang and J Tian and CW Li and YC Jiang and Z Fan and LJ Pan, ENERGY STORAGE MATERIALS, 63, 103069 (2023).

DOI: 10.1016/j.ensm.2023.103069

Ion storage in electric double layer (EDL) of microporous carbon (< 1 nm) has been demonstrated to be a partially desolvated structure, leading to a capacitance increase. Due to the relevance of the interface structure to capacitance behavior and charge storage mechanism, it is critical to give a deep insight into the micropore/ electrolyte interface at the molecular scale. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation can describe the electronic structure and dynamic properties of the EDL. However, the complex EDL is hard to be well equilibrated at the limited time scale of the AIMD simulation. Here, we have performed machine learning force field accelerated molecular dynamics (MLMD) to construct the EDL of microporous carbon at different electrode potentials with a much lower cost while keeping ab initio accuracy. Based on the MLMD with a longer time scale, we have clarified the microscopic information of the interface, such as the distributions of ions and water molecules. By simulating the Na+ intercalation process, the critical role of the electrode potential on ion storage in pore is clarified. In addition, according to the MLMD simulation on micropore/electrolyte EDLs with different pore sizes, the pore size of similar to 0.65 nm is appropriate for desolvation effect due to the match between the pore size and the solvated ion size. These theoretical results provide a way for studying micropore/electrolyte EDL by MLMD and improving the electrochemical performance of microporous carbon electrodes.

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