Fast-charging capability of graphite-based lithium-ion batteries enabled by Li3P-based crystalline solid-electrolyte interphase

SB Tu and B Zhang and Y Zhang and ZH Chen and XC Wang and RM Zhan and YT Ou and WY Wang and XR Liu and XR Duan and L Wang and YM Sun, NATURE ENERGY (2023).

DOI: 10.1038/s41560-023-01387-5

Li+ desolvation in electrolytes and diffusion at the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) are two determining steps that restrict the fast charging of graphite-based lithium-ion batteries. Here we show that the low-solvent-coordination Li+ solvation structure could be induced near the inner Helmholtz plane on inorganic species. Specifically, Li3P could enable a lower Li+ desolvation barrier and faster Li+ diffusion capability through the SEI in comparison to the regular SEI components. We construct an ultrathin S-bridged phosphorus layer on a graphite surface, which in situ converts to crystalline Li3P-based SEI with high ionic conductivity. Our pouch cells with such a graphite anode show 10 min and 6 min (6C and 10C) charging for 91.2% and 80% of the capacity, respectively, as well as 82.9% capacity retention for over 2,000 cycles at a 6C charging rate. Our work reveals the importance of the SEI component and structure regulation for fast-charging LIBs.

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