Electron Dynamics in Open Quantum Systems: The Driven Liouville-von Neumann Methodology within Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

A Oz and A Nitzan and O Hod and JE Peralta, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL THEORY AND COMPUTATION, 19, 7496-7504 (2023).

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jctc.3c00311

A first-principles approach to describe electron dynamics in open quantum systems driven far from equilibrium via external time-dependent stimuli is introduced. Within this approach, the driven Liouville-von Neumann methodology is used to impose open boundary conditions on finite model systems whose dynamics is described using time-dependent density functional theory. As a proof of concept, the developed methodology is applied to simple spin-compensated model systems, including a hydrogen chain and a graphitic molecular junction. Good agreement between steady- state total currents obtained via direct propagation and those obtained from the self-consistent solution of the corresponding Sylvester equation indicates the validity of the implementation. The capability of the new computational approach to analyze, from first principles, non- equilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems in terms of temporally and spatially resolved current densities is demonstrated. Future extensions of the approach toward the description of dynamical magnetization and decoherence effects are briefly discussed.

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