Pragmatic Coarse-Graining of Proteins: Models and Applications

L Borges-Araujo and I Patmanidis and AP Singh and LHS Santos and AK Sieradzan and S Vanni and C Czaplewski and S Pantano and W Shinoda and L Monticelli and A Liwo and SJ Marrink and PCT Souza, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL THEORY AND COMPUTATION, 19, 7112-7135 (2023).

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jctc.3c00733

The molecular details involved in the folding, dynamics, organization, and interaction of proteins with other molecules are often difficult to assess by experimental techniques. Consequently, computational models play an ever-increasing role in the field. However, biological processes involving large-scale protein assemblies or long time scale dynamics are still computationally expensive to study in atomistic detail. For these applications, employing coarse-grained (CG) modeling approaches has become a key strategy. In this Review, we provide an overview of what we call pragmatic CG protein models, which are strategies combining, at least in part, a physics-based implementation and a top-down experimental approach to their parametrization. In particular, we focus on CG models in which most protein residues are represented by at least two beads, allowing these models to retain some degree of chemical specificity. A description of the main modern pragmatic protein CG models is provided, including a review of the most recent applications and an outlook on future perspectives in the field.

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