Modeling the 4D discharge of lithium-ion batteries with a multiscale time-dependent deep learning framework

A Marcato and JE Santos and CY Liu and G Boccardo and D Marchisio and AA Franco, ENERGY STORAGE MATERIALS, 63, 102927 (2023).

DOI: 10.1016/j.ensm.2023.102927

The lithium-ion battery (LIB) field is moving towards the direction of investigating spatially resolved physical phenomena in the 3D porous microstructure of electrodes. These pore-scale simulations give new insights into the local dynamics of lithiation/de-lithiation and charge transport. Nevertheless, the computational time of these simulations limits the integration of these models in optimization workflows of cycling conditions or electrode manufacturing processes.Machine learning models present a way of assessing in real-time the performance of materials. While several successful techniques for replicating simulations with machine learning have been proposed, this case study presents a more demanding problem, due to the necessity of understanding the behavior of heterogeneous 3D local data, as it evolves in time: this poses both a scientific and a technical challenge. To this end, we propose an autoregressive multiscale convolutional neural network model to predict relevant quantities at the pore-scale in the solid phase: the lithium concentration (in the active material) and potential (in the active material and carbon binder). These are ultimately used to reconstruct the battery discharge curve. 3D images of the electrode microstructures are the input to the network, trained with a dataset of finite element method simulations to predict the discharge behavior of the cathode side in lithium ion batteries.We propose this machine learning model as a proof-of-concept of the applicability of multiscale networks for time-dependent physics problems. The trained model exhibits very high accuracy (with errors lower than 2%) in forecasting the discharge behavior of new unseen cathodes.

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