Modeling oxygen diffusion in barium titanate using molecular dynamics: Comparison between Mg and Sc dopants


DOI: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2023.111525

In this study, the diffusion coefficient of oxygen vacancies in barium titanate doped with 2.0% Sc was calculated by using molecular dynamics. The temperature was varied from 1273 K to 2500 K, and the simulation box consisted of 10 x 10 x 10 unit cells subject to periodic boundary conditions. The Sc dopants were incorporated into the B-sublattice and compensated for by using the randomly distributed oxygen vacancies on the oxygen sublattice. The diffusivity of the vacancies was determined from the slope of the mean-squared displacement of the oxygen ions over time. The Arrhenius plot of the diffusion coefficient showed a clear linear behavior, with an activation energy of 0.84 eV. The results were interpreted by computing radial pair distribution functions for various correlations (e.g., Ti-O and Sc-O) and by static lattice (nudged elastic band) calculations of energy barriers for the migration of oxygen. While Mg-doped BaTiO3 exhibited a strong trend of the formation of defect associates between the acceptor dopant and the oxygen vacancies that lead to a clear reduction in the observed activation energy for oxygen transport with increasing temperature (non-linear Arrhenius behavior), defectinduced interactions (associates) in case of Sc doping were nearly negligibly small, and gave rise to a linear Arrhenius plot with a single activation energy.

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