**Asymmetric and symmetric spreading for a nanodroplet on an isothermally
heated surface in the presence of a parallel electric field**

BX Zhang and JH Xu and KQ Zhu and YY Zhang and YR Yang and XD Wang, PHYSICS OF FLUIDS, 35, 052102 (2023).

DOI: 10.1063/5.0149066

Under parallel electric fields and free evaporation conditions, the statics and dynamics of spreading-evaporating nanodroplets are investigated on an isothermally heated surface via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The simulation results show that at the substrate temperature of T-s = 320 K, the static and dynamic contact angles on the left and right edges are initially asymmetric and then symmetric with increasing field strengths of E = 0.00-0.06 V angstrom(-1), resulting in the asymmetric-to-symmetric spreading transition of spreading- evaporating nanodroplets. Under weak evaporation condition, that is, at T-s = 320 K, the asymmetric-to-symmetric spreading transition is triggered by enhancing the intrinsic surface wettability theta(0) = 49 degrees-80 degrees at a constant field strength of E = 0.03 V angstrom(-1). However, at the substrate temperature of T-s = 350 K, the symmetric-to-asymmetric spreading transition first appears for the static and dynamic contact angles on the left and right edges, and then the asymmetric-to-symmetric spreading transition appears with increasing field strength. Under strong evaporation condition, that is, at T-s = 350 K, as the field strength is constant at E = 0.03 V angstrom(-1), the asymmetric-to-symmetric spreading transition also appears with increasing surface wettability.

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