**Nonreciprocal forces enable cold-to-hot heat transfer between
nanoparticles**

SAM Loos and S Arabha and A Rajabpour and A Hassanali and É Roldán, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 13, 4517 (2023).

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-31583-y

We study the heat transfer between two nanoparticles held at different temperatures that interact through nonreciprocal forces, by combining molecular dynamics simulations with stochastic thermodynamics. Our simulations reveal that it is possible to construct nano refrigerators that generate a net heat transfer from a cold to a hot reservoir at the expense of power exerted by the nonreciprocal forces. Applying concepts from stochastic thermodynamics to a minimal underdamped Langevin model, we derive exact analytical expressions predictions for the fluctuations of work, heat, and efficiency, which reproduce thermodynamic quantities extracted from the molecular dynamics simulations. The theory only involves a single unknown parameter, namely an effective friction coefficient, which we estimate fitting the results of the molecular dynamics simulation to our theoretical predictions. Using this framework, we also establish design principles which identify the minimal amount of entropy production that is needed to achieve a certain amount of uncertainty in the power fluctuations of our nano refrigerator. Taken together, our results shed light on how the direction and fluctuations of heat flows in natural and artificial nano machines can be accurately quantified and controlled by using nonreciprocal forces.

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