A monofluoride ether-based electrolyte solution for fast-charging and low-temperature non-aqueous lithium metal batteries

GZ Zhang and J Chang and LG Wang and JW Li and CY Wang and R Wang and GL Shi and K Yu and W Huang and HH Zheng and TP Wu and YH Deng and J Lu, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 14, 1081 (2023).

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-36793-6

The energy content of non-aqueous lithium batteries is limited by the electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte solution. Here, the authors report a monofluoride ether-based electrolyte to stabilize high- voltage lithium metal batteries at high current rates and low temperatures. The electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte solution limits the energy content of non-aqueous lithium metal batteries. In particular, although electrolytes comprising fluorinated solvents show good oxidation stability against high-voltage positive electrode active materials such as LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM811), the ionic conductivity is adversely affected and, thus, the battery cycling performance at high current rates and low temperatures. To address these issues, here we report the design and synthesis of a monofluoride ether as an electrolyte solvent with Li-F and Li-O tridentate coordination chemistries. The monofluoro substituent (-CH2F) in the solvent molecule, differently from the difluoro (-CHF2) and trifluoro (-CF3) counterparts, improves the electrolyte ionic conductivity without narrowing the oxidation stability. Indeed, the electrolyte solution with the monofluoride ether solvent demonstrates good compatibility with positive and negative electrodes in a wide range of temperatures (i.e., from -60 degrees C to +60 degrees C) and at high charge/discharge rates (e.g., at 17.5 mA cm(-2)). Using this electrolyte solution, we assemble and test a 320 mAh Li||NCM811 multi-layer pouch cell, which delivers a specific energy of 426 Wh kg(-1) (based on the weight of the entire cell) and capacity retention of 80% after 200 cycles at 0.8/8 mA cm(-2) charge/discharge rate and 30 degrees C.

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