Electrolyte design principles for developing quasi-solid-state rechargeable halide-ion batteries

X Yang and B Zhang and Y Tian and Y Wang and ZQ Fu and D Zhou and H Liu and FY Kang and BH Li and CS Wang and GX Wang, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 14, 925 (2023).

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-36622-w

Rechargeable halide-ion batteries (HIBs) are good candidates for large- scale due to their appealing energy density, low cost, and dendrite-free features. However, state-of-the-art electrolytes limit the HIBs' performance and cycle life. Here, via experimental measurements and modelling approach, we demonstrate that the dissolutions in the electrolyte of transition metal and elemental halogen from the positive electrode and discharge products from the negative electrode cause the HIBs failure. To circumvent these issues, we propose the combination of fluorinated low-polarity solvents with a gelation treatment to prevent dissolutions at the interphase, thus, improving the HIBs' performance. Using this approach, we develop a quasi-solid-state Cl-ion-conducting gel polymer electrolyte. This electrolyte is tested in a single-layer pouch cell configuration with an iron oxychloride-based positive electrode and a lithium metal negative electrode at 25 degrees C and 125 mA g(-1). The pouch delivers an initial discharge capacity of 210 mAh g(-1) and a discharge capacity retention of almost 80% after 100 cycles. We also report assembly and testing of fluoride-ion and bromide-ion cells using quasi-solid-state halide-ion-conducting gel polymer electrolyte. State-of-the-art electrolytes limit the cycle life of halide-ion batteries. Here, the authors report a fluorinated low-polar gel polymer electrolyte capable of improving the stability of the electrolyte and electrode interphases to boost battery performance.

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