Evolution of bubble in tungsten irradiated by deuterium of low energy and high flux by molecular dynamics simulations
Y Xiang and B Zhang and LQ Shi, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, 606, 154715 (2022).
Using molecular dynamics simulations, the Tersoff-potential was used to investigate the evolution of deuterium (D) bubbles in tungsten (W). This work documents the entire evolution process of D bubbles: formation, growth and burst. The effects of flux, temperature and incident energy of D on the evolution and position of D bubbles were discussed. Temperature and flux together affect the time required for D bubble formation, and energy has a significant effect on depth. At 300 K, single-crystal tungsten surfaces (001), (1 1 0), (1 1 1), and (112) were bombarded by D atoms with 80 eV energy and 6.24 x 1028 m - 2s- 1flux. Although all D bubbles go through three stages, the pressure, volume, and the ratio of (D in D2)/D inside bubbles can tell the difference between the four surfaces. Under the same simulation conditions, the evolution of D bubbles under a surface with a higher crystal face density was found to be harder.
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