DeePKS plus ABACUS as a Bridge between Expensive Quantum Mechanical Models and Machine Learning Potentials

WF Li and Q Ou and YX Chen and Y Cao and RX Liu and CY Zhang and DY Zheng and C Cai and XF Wu and H Wang and MH Chen and LF Zhang, JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A (2022).

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.2c05000

Recently, the development of machine learning (ML) potentials has made it possible to perform large-scale and long-time molecular simulations with the accuracy of quantum mechanical (QM) models. However, for different levels of QM methods, such as density functional theory (DFT) at the meta-GGA level and/or with exact exchange, quantum Monte Carlo, etc., generating a sufficient amount of data for training an ML potential has remained computationally challenging due to their high cost. In this work, we demonstrate that this issue can be largely alleviated with Deep Kohn-Sham (DeePKS), an ML-based DFT model. DeePKS employs a computationally efficient neural network-based functional model to construct a correction term added upon a cheap DFT model. Upon training, DeePKS offers closely matched energies and forces compared with high-level QM method, but the number of training data required is orders of magnitude less than that required for training a reliable ML potential. As such, DeePKS can serve as a bridge between expensive QM models and ML potentials: one can generate a decent amount of high- accuracy QM data to train a DeePKS model and then use the DeePKS model to label a much larger amount of configurations to train an ML potential. This scheme for periodic systems is implemented in a DFT package ABACUS, which is open source and ready for use in various applications.

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