Shear Is Not Always Simple: Rate-Dependent Effects of Flow Type on Granular Rheology
JT Clemmer and I Srivastava and GS Grest and JB Lechman, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 127, 268003 (2021).
Despite there being an infinite variety of types of flow, most rheological studies focus on a single type such as simple shear. Using discrete element simulations, we explore bulk granular systems in a wide range of flow types at large strains and characterize invariants of the stress tensor for different inertial numbers and interparticle friction coefficients. We identify a strong dependence on the type of flow, which grows with increasing inertial number or friction. Standard models of yielding, repurposed to describe the dependence of the stress on flow type in steady-state flow and at finite rates, are compared with data.
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