Strongly Anisotropic Thermomechanical Response to Shock Wave Loading in Oriented Samples of the Triclinic Molecular Crystal 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene
P Zhao and MP Kroonblawd and N Mathew and T Sewell, JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, 125, 22747-22765 (2021).
All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study shock wave loading in oriented single crystals of the highly anisotropic triclinic molecular crystal 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). The crystal structure consists of planar hydrogen-bonded sheets of individually planar TATB molecules that stack into graphitic-like layers. Shocks were studied for seven systematically prepared crystal orientations with limiting cases that correspond to shock propagation exactly perpendicular and exactly parallel to the graphitic-like layers. The simulations were performed for initially defect-free crystals using a reverse-ballistic configuration that generates explicit, supported shocks. Final longitudinal stress components are between approximate to 8.5 and approximate to 10.5 GPa for the 1.0 km s(-1) impact speed studied. Orientation-dependent properties are reported including shock speeds, stresses, temperatures, compression ratios, and local material strain rates. Spatiotemporal maps of the temperature, stress tensor, material flow, and molecular orientations reveal complicated processes that arise for specific shock directions. The results indicate that TATB shock response is highly sensitive to crystal orientation, with significant qualitative differences for the time evolution of the stress tensor and temperature, elastic/inelastic compression response, defect formation and growth, critical von Mises stress, and strain rates during shock rise that span nearly an order of magnitude. A variety of inelastic deformation mechanisms are identified, ranging from crumpling of graphitic-like layers to dislocation-mediated plasticity to intense shear strain localization. To our knowledge, these are the first systematic MD simulations and analysis of explicit shock wave propagation along nontrivial crystal directions in a triclinic molecular crystal.
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