Full energy range primary radiation damage model
QG Yang and P Olsson, PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS, 5, 073602 (2021).
A full energy range primary radiation damage model is presented here. It is based on the athermal recombination corrected displacements per atom (arc-dpa) model but includes a proper treatment of the near threshold conditions for metallic materials. Both ab initio (AIMD) and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used here for various metals with body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures to validate the model. For bcc and hcp metals, the simulation results fit very well with the model. For fcc metals, although there are slight deviations between the model and direct simulation results, it is still a clear improvement on the arc- dpa model. The deviations are due to qualitative differences in the threshold energy surfaces of fcc metals with respect to bcc and hcp metals according to our classical MD simulations. We introduce the minimum threshold displacement energy (TDE) as a term in our damage model. We calculated minimum TDEs for various metal materials using AIMD. In general, the calculated minimum TDEs are in very good agreement with experimental results. Moreover, we noticed a discrepancy in the literature for fcc Ni and estimated the average TDE of Ni using both classical MD and AIMD. It was found that the average TDE of Ni should be similar to 70 eV based on simulation and experimental data, not the commonly used literature value of 40 eV. The most significant implications of introducing this full energy range damage model will be for estimating the effect of weak particle-matter interactions, such as for gamma- and electron-radiation-induced damage.
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