Hierarchical morphologies in co-sputter deposited thin films
M Powers and B Derby and SN Manjunath and A Misra, PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS, 4, 123801 (2020).
Co-depositions of immiscible alloy films at specific processing conditions have yielded hierarchical microstructures which consist of distinct features at multiple length scales, often agglomerates and concentration modulations on the submicrometer scale and fine nanoprecipitates in a matrix on the nanoscale. The present work examined a series of immiscible alloy systems: Cu-Mo, Cu-Ag, Cu-Fe, Cu-Ta, Mo-Ag, Cu-Mo-Ag, to determine the kinetic conditions favorable for hierarchical organization and the formation mechanism of such structures. Thin films of six immiscible systems were sputter co-deposited over a range of deposition rates from 0.12 to 2 nm/s and various temperatures from 400 to 800 degrees C. The resulting microstructures indicate that hierarchical structures form with sufficient disparity in kinetic energy between the constituent atoms, one species being highly mobile (A) and the other relatively immobile (B). This condition arises typically at elevated deposition temperatures and reduced deposition rates but is also alloy dependent. The hierarchical structures form during deposition via phase separation and self-organization processes across the multiple length scales. The adatoms diffuse on the film surface with the highly mobile species swiftly agglomerating into A-rich domains within which B-rich nanoprecipitates form, often self-organizing into periodic arrays. The smallest B-rich nanoprecipitates in the A-rich domains are found to be coherent and in a metastable crystal structure (B taking the structure of A), but coarser precipitates exhibit the equilibrium structure of the B element. The A-rich domains are surrounded by a B-rich matrix that phase-separates into a concentration modulated structure. The observations are interpreted via a model incorporating material properties and process parameters.
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