Influence of Gravity on the Sliding Angle of Water Drops on Nanopillared Superhydrophobic Surfaces
H Li and TY Yan and KA Fichthorn, LANGMUIR, 36, 9916-9925 (2020).
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the effects of gravity, solid surface energy, and the fraction of water-solid interface area on the water droplet sliding angles on nanopillared surfaces. To effectively simulate the influence of gravity on drop sliding, we developed a protocol in which we scale the value of gravitational acceleration used in our simulations according to the Bond number (Bo). In this way, we approximate the behavior of drops larger than we can effectively simulate using MD. The sliding angle decreased with an increase in Bo, while it increased with an increase in the liquid-solid surface interaction. The sliding angles exhibit a minimum with an increase in the fraction of water-solid interface area, due to meniscus formation at high fractions. Trends predicted by our model are in agreement with experiment. Using our model, we investigated the mechanisms of droplet movement along nanopillared surfaces. Depending on the pinning state of the droplets at equilibrium, either the advancing or the receding contact angle initiates motion. Moreover, the minimum dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of drops with gravity are close to the static contact angle and the intrinsic contact angle, respectively, while the maxima of both angles are as large as 180 degrees. We find that the drops move through a combination of sliding and rolling, in agreement with experiment. Our studies offer clarity to conflicting experimental reports and present new results awaiting experimental confirmation.
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