Focal construct geometry for high-intensity x-ray diffraction from laser-shocked polycrystalline
XH Chen and B Li and T Xue and J Li, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, 91, 083908 (2020).
An increasing number of dynamic experiments, especially those involving laser drive, are employing in situ x-ray diffraction as a probe to interrogate structure evolution between states of matter under extreme pressure and temperature. We present an alternative configuration, focal construct geometry, for in situ x-ray diffraction to measure the structure and evolution of dynamically compressed polycrystalline materials on a laser platform. This configuration makes full use of the isotropically emitted He-alpha x rays by employing an annular (or semi- annular) collimator rather than a regular pinhole collimator and thus increases the flux of incident x rays reaching the sample as well as the intensity of the diffracted x rays, enabling the detection of a diffraction pattern with less laser energy. Its effectiveness and applicability are validated against the conventional Debye-Scherrer geometry through direct molecular dynamics simulations and x-ray diffraction simulations for two representative shock-induced phase transition events, solid-solid and solid-liquid (or melting). This configuration reproduces all the Debye-Scherrer diffraction profiles in good accuracy and demonstrates superior efficiency in utilizing the isotropic x-ray source and harvesting diffracted x rays while preserving the angular resolution.
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